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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is referred to as ADHD. It is a neurological condition that impairs your ability to focus, maintain composure, and regulate your behavior. It occurs in kids and teenagers and can last until maturity.

The most frequently identified mental illness in youngsters is ADHD. Compared to girls, boys are more likely to have it. It is typically identified in a child’s early years of school when attention problems first appear.

ADHD cannot be cured or prevented. A kid or adult with ADHD can manage their symptoms, though, if they are diagnosed early and have a strong treatment and education plan.

Types of ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD))

There are three categories for symptom types:

Inattentive. ADHD in children:

  • Prone to distraction
  • Does not adhere to instructions or complete responsibilities
  • Appears not to be listening
  • Neglects to pay attention and commits casual errors
  • Forgets about routine tasks
  • Has trouble planning everyday activities
  • Dislikes activities that require her to sit motionlessly.
  • Regularly loses items
  • Prone to daydreaming

Hyperactive-impulsive. ADHD in children:

  • frequently wriggles, fidgets, or hops while seated
  • fails to remain seated
  • struggles to play softly
  • is constantly on the move, such as when they run or climb. (In adults and teenagers, this is more frequently referred to as restlessness.)
  • talks too much
  • is “on the go” constantly, as though “propelled by a motor”
  • struggles to wait their turn
  • responses in haste
  • disrupts other people

Combined. These include both of the other sorts of indications.

Causes of ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD))

Although the specific cause of ADHD is uncertain, it has been demonstrated that the disorder runs in families.

Additionally, research has found some potential variations in the brains of those with ADHD and those without the disorder.

Additional elements that have been proposed as possibly contributing to ADHD include:

  • being born too soon (before the 37th week of pregnancy)
  • being born with a low weight
  • smoking, drinking, or doing drugs while pregnant

Although it can affect persons of all intellectual levels, learning disabilities are more frequently associated with ADHD.


There are various methods for treating ADHD. However, evidence indicates that a multimodal strategy is the most effective method to treat symptoms for many kids. This involves a combination of several therapy modalities. With the help of medication and counseling, many symptoms of ADHD can be controlled. It is crucial that therapists, doctors, teachers, and parents work closely together.

ADHD medication. The most frequently recommended drugs for treating ADHD are stimulants, despite debate about whether they may be overused. They can enhance attention span and aid in the management of impulsive and hyperactive behavior. They have an effect on the neurotransmitters like dopamine that might exacerbate impulsive behavior.

They include:

  • Amphetamine (Adzenys XR ODT, Dyanavel)
  • Dexmethylphenidate (Focalin)
  • Dextroamphetamine (Adderall, Dexedrine)
  • Lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse)
  • Methylphenidate (Aptensio, Cotempla, Concerta, Daytrana, Jornay PM, Metadate, Methylin, Quillivant, Ritalin)

Not all ADHD patients respond well to stimulant drugs. Adults above the age of six may use nonstimulant drugs like:

  • Atomoxetine (Strattera)
  • Clonidine (Catapres, Kapvay)
  • Guanfacine (Intuniv)

Antidepressants such as those classified as SSRIs, bupropion (Wellbutrin), or venlafaxine may occasionally be prescribed by doctors (Effexor).

Medicines for ADHD side effects may include:

  • Anxiety
  • reduced appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Crankiness
  • difficulty sleeping
  • color of the skin (with patches)
  • uneasy stomach
  • Headache


1 “Data & Statistics.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ed. Center for Disease Control. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 14 Feb. 2017. Web. 14 Mar. 2017.
2 Association, American Psychiatric, ed. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5. Washington: American Psychiatric, 2014.
3 Association, American Psychiatric, ed. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5. Washington: American Psychiatric, 2014.

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