Student Village Academy Forums HEALTH AND RELATIONSHIPS Female Reproductive health; What to know about Premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

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      Shekinah Brama

      The symptoms that females experience in the week or two prior to their menstrual period are referred to as premenstrual syndrome, or PMS.

      The most typical PMS symptoms are mood swings, bloating, cramps, and headaches. These symptoms may only be a slight inconvenience to some people. Others may experience symptoms that are so bad that they must miss work or school.

      This article examines PMS, including its symptoms, causes, treatments, and coping mechanisms. Additionally, we go through when someone should visit a doctor regarding their symptoms.



      The wide spectrum of physical and psychological symptoms that people encounter prior to their menstruation are referred to as PMS.

      The precise cause of PMS is still a mystery. However, the symptoms are probably brought on by regular changes in hormone levels, particularly those of estrogen and progesterone in the week or so prior to menstruation.

      Following ovulation, the levels of estrogen and progesterone sharply decline. This might significantly contribute to the emergence of PMS symptoms.

      Serotonin levels may be impacted by the decline in estrogen levels. A brain chemical called serotonin helps control mood, sleep, and appetite—all of which are impacted by PMS.

      It is uncommon to experience severe or incapacitating PMS symptoms, and these symptoms may be a sign of an underlying medical illness. Any severe PMS symptoms should be discussed with a doctor.


      Mild to severe PMS symptoms can be experienced. Some people get periods without ever showing any signs of PMS.

      However, for some people, PMS symptoms can considerably impair their capacity to carry out daily tasks and even degrade their quality of life.

      Physical symptoms of PMS can include:

      • Change in appetite, including food cravings.
      • Swelling or painful breasts.
      • Gaining weight.
      • Stomach bloating.
      • Lower abdominal discomfort or menstrual cramps.
      • Constipation or diarrhea.
      • Headaches.
      • Fatigue.
      • Greasy skin.
      • Outbreaks of acne and other skin conditions.

      PMS can cause psychological symptoms such as:

      • Low mood.
      • Feeling emotional or teary.
      • Irritation or rage.
      • Depression.
      • Elevated anxiety.
      • Mood swings.
      • Social exclusion.
      • Issues with sleep, such as insomnia.
      • Having trouble concentrating.
      • Reduced libido.


      How can I tell that  it’s PMS?

      Particularly if they have an irregular cycle, people may not immediately recognize that their symptoms are connected to menstruation.

      A person can discover trends by keeping a record of their symptoms and when they occur. PMS may be to blame if symptoms appear around the same time each month or at the same point in the menstrual cycle. If not, there may be another reason for the symptoms.

      Rarely do PMS symptoms become severe or incapacitating. If PMS symptoms interfere with daily life, consult a physician. Severe symptoms may occasionally be a sign of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) or another medical problem.

      Severe PMS can also be brought on by several reproductive system disorders such polycystic ovary syndrome and endometriosis. A doctor can assist in treating these illnesses and lessening a person’s symptom severity and frequency.


      How can PMS be treated?

      Depending on a person’s particular symptoms, there are many PMS treatment methods.

      By taking drugs, altering their diets, exercising, experimenting with self-care techniques, and changing other aspects of their lifestyle, people can control the symptoms of PMS.


      Taking over-the-counter and prescription medication might ease uncomfortable symptoms including headaches and cramps in the abdomen.

      Painkillers like acetaminophen, which can ease muscular pain, cramps, and headaches, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines, which can ease muscle pains, headaches, and cramps, and diuretics, which can ease bloating and breast soreness are some examples of medications that people take to treat PMS.

      Try light exercise.

      Light activity can boost levels of estrogen and progesterone, which may help lessen PMS symptoms.


      Use relaxation techniques.

      You can control emotional imbalances brought on by PMS by controlling your stress levels and practicing relaxation strategies like deep breathing or meditation.


      Eat nutrients. 

      Modest to severe PMS symptoms may be lessened by dietary adjustments. Some examples of foods that could aid someone in controlling their PMS symptoms include the following:

      Magnesium may reduce PMS-related migraine attacks. Magnesium is found in leafy green foods like kale and spinach.


      Fatty acids may lessen PMS-related stomach pains. Green vegetables, salmon, and nuts are all excellent sources.


      Bone density and strength are supported by calcium. Having enough calcium also aids in controlling mood, sleep, and food cravings.


      Is it early pregnancy or Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)?

      Several symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome closely match those of early pregnancy. As a result, some women find it challenging to tell when their menstruation is coming on or whether they are pregnant.

      Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and pregnancy symptoms might differ from person to person, although they frequently involve breast pain, cramps, and mood swings.

      There are several signs that are more likely to signal an early pregnancy than a coming menstruation. However, the only way to be certain is to use a home pregnancy test or see a doctor.


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