English Language Keypoints: Comprehension & Summary

English Language Keypoints: Comprehension & Summary; These topics are suitable for English Language students in the following classes. JAMB, Post-UTME, IJMB, and WAEC/NECO students.


(a) Description:

Writing that focuses on providing a vivid and detailed account of a person, location, item, or event is known as a description. Ensure that the reader has a thorough comprehension of what is being described, it requires the use of exact language and sensory elements.

Poetry, fiction, non-fiction, and other types of writing all benefit from the use of description. Making a subject vivid in the reader’s mind is the aim of description.


  • Example 1: “The colors of orange, pink, and purple blended together in the sky during the sunset, creating a stunning display of hues. The fluffy cotton candy-like clouds created shadows on the undulating hills below. The air was filled with the aroma of blossoming flowers and the chattering of crickets.”
  • Example 2: “With its complex motifs engraved into the smooth porcelain surface, the ancient vase was a work of beauty. Shades of blue and gold swirled together in vibrant, strong colors. The short neck tapered off into a delicate rim, while the base was firm and substantial. It was a gorgeous object that would fit in beautifully with any collector’s collection.”

(b) Narration:

Writing that tells a tale is referred to as narration. The narration usually features a narrator who is reliving past events, usually in chronological sequence. Character development, plot, and setting are common components of narration. The purpose of narration is to amuse the reader by telling a compelling, well-organized story.


  • Example 1: “Jenny had just finished eating dinner on a warm summer evening. She made the decision to stroll in the park while taking in the fresh air and hearing youngsters playing. She saw a figure seated on a bench gazing up at the stars as she walked along the route. Jenny moved forward to have a better look, and to her amazement, it turned out to be her long-lost childhood best friend.”
  • Example 2: “Tommy was the scout troop’s most enthusiastic beaver. He was always the first to volunteer for any camping trip because he adored being outside. The squad made the decision to walk to Mount Baker’s top one summer. Tommy was adamant about getting to the top despite the rocky and steep terrain. He could see the world below him getting smaller and smaller as he ascended higher. He was fatigued but elated when he, at last, reached the top and felt like he could take on anything.”

(c) Exposition:

A sort of writing called exposition conveys concepts or facts to the reader. It is frequently used to express a viewpoint, define important concepts, or give background information. Essays, books, and news stories are just a few examples of writing styles that include exposition. By clearly and concisely presenting information, exposition aims to inform and educate the reader.


  • Example 1: “All plants depend on the process of photosynthesis. In the process of photosynthesis, plants use the sun’s energy to transform carbon dioxide and water into glucose, which is then used as a kind of energy storage. Additionally, by doing this, oxygen is released into the atmosphere, allowing creatures to breathe. Not only plants but also the entire world depend on photosynthesis for survival.”
  • Example 2: “Between 1861 and 1865, the Civil War, which had a tremendous impact on American history, raged. It was fought between the southern Confederacy and the northern states collectively known as the Union. The conflict over the matter of states’ rights and slavery was the main driver of the war. As a result of the Union’s victory, slavery was abolished and the United States was preserved as a single country.”

(d) Argumentation/Persuasion:

Writing styles like argumentation and persuasion are used to persuade readers to adopt a particular point of view or perform a particular action. They entail putting out arguments in opposition to the writer’s standpoint together with supporting evidence and logic. Essays, speeches, and commercials are just a few examples of the numerous types of writing that use argumentation and persuasion. To persuade the reader to adopt the writer’s point of view or take a specific action is the aim of argumentation and persuasion.


  • Example 1: “Due to its brutal nature and violations of fundamental human rights, the death penalty ought to be abolished. It is a defective system that has led to the execution of innocent persons and is prone to mistakes. Furthermore, there is no proof that applying the death penalty deters crime. Instead, it is an expensive, outmoded technique that is inappropriate for today’s culture.”
  • Example 2: “To give pupils more time to sleep in the morning, schools should start later. Teenagers need 8 to 10 hours of sleep every night, according to studies, yet the current school schedule frequently requires them to rise early. Health issues, poor academic performance, and even depression can result from sleep deprivation. Students’ health and wellbeing would increase and their learning experience would be improved if they started school later.”

Related; English Language Keypoints; Parts of speech.

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English Language Keypoints: Comprehension & Summary